Tips for better production and marketing of onions
India has harvested 22.4 million tonnes of onions in the last 2016-17 crop year. Onions are very beneficial Vegetable which is essential to add in livestock feed. The phytochemicals in onions that scavenge free radicals may reduce risk of gastric ulcers and sulphur helps lower blood sugar by triggering increased insulin production which will eventually reduce heart problems.
Onions can be grown anywhere in the country from kharif, Rabi to late kharif. Varieties like N53, Ratnaar, Agrifound and Arka Red are widely used by farmers. Hybrids like Laliman and Kirtiman are also favourable. The required soils for onion cultivation are deep friable loam and alluvial soil of pH range of 5.8 to 6.5. The seeds should be treated with 1packet of tricoderma per acre and 2gram of captan per kilogram of seeds. The soil must be mixed with 10-15 tonnes farm yard manure, 50kg phosphorus, 50kg sulphur, 50kg potash and 100kg nitrogen per hactare. Nitrogen must not be given together and should be added in time to time intervals as per requirement. To protect the crop from weeds and pests add 1.5kg basal before plantation and 1.5kg pendimethlyn after plantation. If irrigation done by tubewells, the crop must be irrigated in 15 days intervals whereas while using drip irrigation, irrigate the crop in 4-5 days intervals. Drip irrigation is more suitable because the fertilizers are mixed with water and is supplied simultaneously which increases the crop yield by 30%. Kharif crop takes around 90-100 days to grow with yield of 20-25 tonnes/ hectare, Rabi takes 150 days with yield of 25-30 tonnes/ hectare and late kharif takes around 200 days with average yield of 30-35 tonnes/hectare.
Onions become ready to harvest in 3-5 months and 2-3 months after transplanting for dry and green onions. At the time of collection and transportation, onions should be packed in 14-15 kg capacity cane baskets for export purpose and 10-12kg jute bags for local markets. Onions can't be stored in cold storage and requires open windy area.
To earn better profit, store onions and sell them in intervals at the market by the farmers.To get more information farmers can contact NAFED which is an organization for onion marketing. Also, due to increased use of chemicals and pesticides loss in export has been noticed. To overcome this problem, farmers must use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) which focused more on organic farming and less usage of chemical substances.
By adopting the techniques and methods mentioned above, one can increase the total yield and can earn high profit.